The act of testing and assessment of knowledge – the first and most important type of public assessment of the student.
During the study of literary sources find out the main idea, the position of the author and the features of the scientific work on the researched problem. It is also important to trace the cause and logic of the author’s controversy with other researchers, the peculiarities of his argument, to develop their own opinion about his position. Analysis of the problem, which is not reflected in his work, will help to formulate more clearly the task of a deeper study of the problem.
3. Study of school practice.
In the process of analyzing the literature on school experience, it should be clarified: what teacher solves the most successfully in solving this problem, what difficulties he faces; typical shortcomings in his work on this issue, the main causes of difficulties and shortcomings. It is important to know whether the teacher succeeds in the work, spending time rationally, whether they are associated with overloading his work in one direction to the detriment of others.
4. Formulation of a hypothesis, ie a scientific assumption, a probable conclusion from the study.
5. Implementation of experimental work.
6. Study of best practices.
7. Comparison of experimental data with mass practice.
8. Generalization of research results, formulation of scientific conclusions, proof or refutation of the hypothesis.
9. Registration of research results, their implementation.
The process and results of scientific and pedagogical research are recorded in many ways. For this purpose certain types of documentation are made:
questionnaires, observation plans, implementation of pedagogical experiments, implementation of research results in practice, tape recordings, photographs, films;
minutes of discussion of lessons, educational activities, etc.; abstracts of processed literature, archival materials; descriptions of the experience of schools and other educational institutions; statistical data, mathematical calculations.
The main forms of control of students’ knowledge. Abstract
Increased attention to the problem of control of classes is caused not only by the desire to determine the degree of readiness of students, but also the desire to improve the entire system of education. Testing and assessment of knowledge perform six functions: control, training, educational, organizational, developmental and methodological
Functions of control of knowledge of students. The higher education system is a multifaceted process that consists of a number of interrelated elements. Among them, an important place is occupied by knowledge control, ie the organization of feedback as a means of managing the educational process. This problem is especially relevant today due to the fact that the entire system of higher education in Ukraine is subject to complete organizational restructuring.
Increased attention to the problem of control of classes is caused not only by the desire to determine the degree of readiness of students, but also the desire to improve the entire system of education. Testing and assessment of knowledge perform at least six functions: control, training, educational, organizational, developmental and methodological.
Control function. The most important function of testing and assessing knowledge is control.
Testing and assessment of knowledge – one of the forms of state control. Student knowledge control indicators are the only basis for judging learning outcomes, and therefore for addressing such important issues as transfer to the next year, the appointment of scholarships, graduation and the issuance of a diploma. Data on the results of control of students’ knowledge are the main indicators by which the work of not only individual students and teachers, but also entire academic groups, courses, faculties and universities in general.
Learning function. Testing and assessment of students’ knowledge in the correct organization serve not only the purposes of control, but also the purposes of training, they always to some extent depend on the pedagogical skills of the teacher, are educational and can not be different.
An important role in replenishing and improving knowledge is played by the process of preparing students for tests and exams, credit for tests and defense of term papers. At the same time, the whole factual material of this science is thoroughly processed, and not only some part of it. Preparation for the answer, presentation of the answer on a paper, oral answers to the questions put by the teacher and under. always associated with intense mental activity of the student: the content of the answer must be carefully thought out, the necessary knowledge is carefully selected so that the teacher can measure them by various parameters, expressed in one form or another. Knowledge testing is closely related to the reproduction and repetition of previously learned, and this always effectively helps to improve them.
Educational function. The act of testing and assessment of knowledge – the first and most important type of public assessment of the student. The results of his individual efforts to acquire knowledge in this case become the subject of public opinion and evaluation, which always deeply affects the emotional sphere of the individual. Therefore, testing and assessment of knowledge is always an exciting moment in the life of the student and leave a deep mark in his psyche.
Acting on the morale of the student, properly tested and evaluated is a powerful means of developing socially valuable personality traits: an honest attitude to work, a sense of responsibility for the results of their academic work and work discipline, will, character. Thus, performing control and educational functions, testing and assessment of knowledge is both the most important means of education, an important factor in moral education.
Organizational function. Knowledge control is an important means of organizing systematic daily work of students on the acquisition of knowledge.
The knowledge acquired in the process of studying a subject may seem to the student correct and quite complete, although in fact, objectively, the veins do not meet the requirements.
And only as a result of verification and evaluation the student learns what he knows and what he does not know or does not know enough, what he needs to do to improve the quality of knowledge. And this inevitably leads the student to independent conclusions about the need to learn more rational methods of educational work. It is important to be aware of the positive experience of the best students. On this basis, the student decides what the content and methodology should be his further educational work, what you need to pay more attention to, etc., which has a very significant impact on further study.
Developmental function. The control of students’ knowledge has rich opportunities for the development of the student’s personality, the formation of cognitive abilities and the assimilation of methods of mental activity. The process of knowledge control effectively promotes the development of such important personality traits as independent thinking, rich and stable memory, expressive language, etc.
Methodical function. The process of testing and assessing students’ knowledge and its results are very important for the teacher himself, for his further work, because in the process of control the teacher simultaneously evaluates his teaching methods and the content of lectures, seminars and workshops.
Control of students’ knowledge is an integral and important part of the learning process, a responsible stage on the way from ignorance to knowledge, from incomplete knowledge to more accurate and complete.
Every teacher needs to develop such a system of knowledge control, so that in general it best serves all its functions.
In directing the learning process, the teacher must not only communicate certain information to students or organize the perception of this information from other sources, but must also have comprehensive information about how this work is performed, what is the quantity and quality of acquired knowledge. And the more complete this information will be, the more students will be covered by it, the more sufficient and timely control, the more qualified the teacher will be able to manage the learning process, the more opportunities will make learning manageable. Implementation of the feedback principle is an important condition for improving the quality of training.
Didactic principles of knowledge control
The task of the teacher and students is to identify the true state of knowledge, skills and abilities in the process of testing the assessment of knowledge and thus help students to rationally organize educational work in the future. The success of this task directly depends on the strict adherence of the teacher to the didactic principles of knowledge control.
Didactic principles of knowledge control are the initial theoretical provisions, in accordance with which the practical activities of teachers and students should be built and on the basis of which the content of knowledge control, their methods and forms of organization are determined.
The main are six didactic principles of testing and evaluation of knowledge: effectiveness, systematicity, individuality, differentiation, objectivity and unity of requirements.
The principle of effectiveness is that the testing and assessment of students’ knowledge should not only reflect the level of knowledge acquisition, but also always encourage students and teachers to strive to achieve new successes in academic work.
The principle of systematicity is expressed in the fact that, first, the verification and assessment of knowledge is not carried out on a case-by-case basis, but systematically, in inseparable connection with the whole learning process, of all subjects; secondly, control must be continuous throughout the learning process; thirdly, testing and assessment of knowledge are carried out in a certain sequence, with the gradual complication of tasks, content and methodology.
In this regard, the number of inspections is very important. The more regular the test and assessment of student knowledge, the more complete information about the course of learning, the better all the functions of testing and assessment of knowledge. Assault before the examination session indicates a violation of the principles of systematicity and that the control process is carried out for the sake of control, and is not a means of managing the learning process and improving the quality of the pedagogical process.
The principle of individuality testing and assessment of knowledge means that the teacher seeks a deep and fair assessment of the success of each student, not the group as a whole. Only, taking into account and evaluating the peculiarities of each student’s work individually, his achievements, difficulties and failures, the teacher can successfully manage the scientific growth of students.
The principle of differentiation is to identify quantitative and qualitative differences in knowledge, skills and abilities of students and their assessment. Differentiation of assessments of students’ knowledge provides the necessary information for the effective restructuring of educational work and students and teachers in the future, to assess the knowledge of each student, makes a more effective assessment of the quality of student groups and courses; will allow to take more fully into account the results obtained when summarizing the work, moral and material incentives for students help me write my lab report free.